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FOB
Sources:International Trade Law, Time:2012-07-11 16:25, Click:, Comment
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FOB
FREE ON BOARD
FOB (insert named port of shipment) Incoterms 2010
GUIDANCE NOTE
This rule is to be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.
“Free on Board” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.
The seller is required either to deliver the goods on board the vessel or to procure goods already so delivered for shipment. The reference to “procure” here caters for multiple sales down a chain (‘string sales’), particularly common in the commodity trades.
FOB may not be appropriate where goods are handed over to the carrier before they are on board the vessel, for example goods in containers, which are typically delivered at a terminal. In such situations, the FCA rule should be used.
FOB requires the seller to clear the goods for export, where applicable. However, the seller has no obligation to clear the goods for import, pay any import duty or carry out any import customs formalities.

A THE SELLER’ OBLIGATIONS
A1 General obligations of the seller
The seller must provide the goods and the commercial invoice in conformity with the contract of sale and any other evidence of conformity that may be required by the contract.
Any document referred to in A1-A10 may be an equivalent electronic record or procedure if agreed between the parties or customary.

A2 Licences, authorizations, security clearances and other formalities
Where applicable, the seller must obtain, at its own risk and expense, any export licence or other official authorization and carry out all customs formalities necessary for the export of the goods.

A3 Contracts of carriage and insurance
a) Contract of carriage
The seller has no obligation to the buyer to make a contract of carriage. However, if requested by the buyer or if it is commercial practice and the buyer does not give an instruction to the
contrary in due time, the seller may contract for carriage on usual
terms at the buyer’s risk and expense. In either case, the seller may decline to make the contract of carriage and, if it does, shall promptly notify the buyer.

b) Contract of insurance
The seller has no obligation to the buyer to make a contract of insurance. However, the seller must provide the buyer, at the buyer’s request, risk, and expense (if any), with information that
the buyer needs for obtaining insurance.

A4 Delivery
The seller must deliver the goods either by placing them on board the vessel nominated by the buyer at the loading point, if any, indicated by the buyer at the named port of shipment or by procuring the goods so delivered. In either case, the seller must deliver the goods on the agreed date or within the agreed period and in the manner customary at the port.
If no specific loading point has been indicated by the buyer, the seller may select the point within the named port of shipment that best suits its purpose.

B THE BUYER’ OBLIGATIONS
B1 General obligations of the buyer
The buyer must pay the price of the goods as provided in the contract of sale.
Any document referred to in B1-B10 may be an equivalent electronic record or procedure if agreed between the parties or customary.

B2 Licences, authorizations, security clearances and other formalities
Where applicable, it is up to the buyer to obtain, at its own risk and expense, any import licence or other official authorization and carry out all customs formalities for the import of the goods and for their transport through any country.

B3 Contracts of carriage and insurance
a) Contract of carriage
The buyer must contract, at its own expense for the carriage of the goods from the named port of shipment, except where the contract of carriage is made by the seller as provided for in A3 a).
b) Contract of insurance
The buyer has no obligation to the seller to make a contract of insurance.
B4 Taking delivery
The buyer must take delivery of the goods when they have been delivered as envisaged in A4.

A5 Transfer of risks
The seller bears all risks of loss of or damage to the goods until they have been delivered in accordance with A4 with the exception of loss or damage in the circumstances described in B5.

A6 Allocation of costs
The seller must pay
a) all costs relating to the goods until they have been delivered in accordance with A4, other than those payable by the buyer as envisaged in B6; and
b) where applicable, the costs of customs formalities necessary for export, as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export.

B5 Transfer of risks
The buyer bears all risks of loss of or damage to the goods from the time they have been delivered as envisaged in A4.
If
a) the buyer fails to notify the nomination of a vessel in accordance with B7; or
b) the vessel nominated by the buyer fails to arrive on time to enable the seller to comply with A4, is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance
with B7; then, the buyer bears all risks of loss of or damage to the goods:
(i) from the agreed date, or in the absence of an agreed date,
(ii) from the date notified by the seller under A7 within the agreed period, or, if no such date has been notified,
(iii) from the expiry date of any agreed period for delivery, provided that the goods have been clearly identified as the contract goods.

B6 Allocation of costs
The buyer must pay
a) all costs relating to the goods from the time they have been delivered as envisaged in A4, except, where applicable, the costs of customs formalities necessary for export, as well as all duties, taxes and other charges payable upon export as referred to in A6 b);
b) any additional costs incurred, either because:
(i) the buyer has failed to give appropriate notice in accordance with B7, or
(ii) the vessel nominated by the buyer fails to arrive on time, is unable to take the goods, or closes for cargo earlier than the time notified in accordance with B7, provided that the goods have been clearly identified as the contract goods; and
c) where applicable, all duties, taxes and other charges, as well as the costs of carrying out customs formalities payable upon import of the goods and the costs for their transport through any country.

A7 Notices to the buyer
The seller must, at the buyer’s risk and expense, give the buyer sufficient notice either that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4 or that the vessel has failed to take the goods within the time agreed.

A8 Delivery document
The seller must provide the buyer, at the seller’s expense, with the usual proof that the goods have been delivered in accordance with A4.
Unless such proof is a transport document, the seller must provide assistance to the buyer, at the buyer’s request, risk and expense, in obtaining a transport document.

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